Researchers have discovered a compound called 3,4,5-Tri-O-Caffeoylquinic Acid (TCQA) in the plant Nymphoides peltata, which has shown promising anti-wrinkling effects. The study, conducted by researchers in South Korea, aimed to explore the potential of TCQA in skincare by studying its impact on cellular signaling pathways.
UV radiation, particularly UVB radiation, is a major contributor to skin aging and the development of wrinkles. Prolonged exposure to UVB radiation leads to oxidative stress and inflammation, causing damage to the skin. Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key player in the skin’s defense against oxidative stress. Activating Nrf2 helps regulate antioxidant activity and counteracts oxidative damage, slowing down the aging process.
The activation of transcription factors such as MAPK, NF-κB, and AP-1 is characteristic of photoaging. These factors promote collagen degradation and abnormal skin structure. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly MMP-1, contribute to skin aging and wrinkle formation by degrading components of the extracellular matrix. Compounds that activate Nrf2 and inhibit the MAPK/NF-κB/AP-1 signaling pathway have the potential to be effective anti-photoaging and anti-wrinkle agents.
Nymphoides peltata, a plant traditionally used in Korean medicine, has shown anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. Recent studies have also indicated its potential for improving skin health. In this study, researchers identified 15 compounds in N. peltata root extract, including TCQA. TCQA was found to enhance Nrf2 levels in skin cells, suggesting its potential as an anti-wrinkle agent.
TCQA demonstrated its effectiveness in inhibiting the MAPK signaling pathway, which is activated by UVB exposure. It reduced the protein expressions of p-ERK, p-JNK, and p38, protecting against collagen breakdown and reducing wrinkles. TCQA also exhibited anti-inflammatory capabilities by suppressing NF-κB, p65, and IκBα, inhibiting the transcription of inflammatory cytokines.
Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives, including TCQA, are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. TCQA’s unique molecular structure and three caffeoyl groups make it even more potent compared to other CQA derivatives. Its antiradical ability, induction of ATP synthesis, and inhibition of proinflammatory substances contribute to its heightened bioactivity.
In conclusion, TCQA from Nymphoides peltata shows promise as an anti-wrinkle agent. Its impact on Nrf2 and various signaling pathways involved in skin aging and wrinkle formation demonstrates its multifaceted mechanism of action. With its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, coupled with its unique molecular structure, TCQA holds potential for the development of natural anti-aging skincare products. This research highlights the rich potential of herbal compounds in skincare and opens up exciting possibilities for future anti-wrinkle agents that harness the power of nature.