A recent study published in GeroScience has examined the unique characteristics of individuals who live to be 100 years old and beyond, shedding light on the factors that contribute to exceptional longevity. The study, unlike previous research, compared blood biomarkers measured earlier in life between individuals who eventually became centenarians and those who did not. The findings revealed that centenarians generally had lower levels of glucose, creatinine, and uric acid compared to others. These biomarkers are associated with metabolic status and organ function. It was also found that centenarians established a distinct metabolic profile by the age of 65, suggesting that early-life factors may play a role in exceptional longevity.
The study analyzed data from over 44,000 participants in the AMORIS cohort, a population-based study in Sweden. The participants’ biomarkers were measured between 1985 and 1996, and their health was followed until 2020. The researchers assessed 12 blood biomarkers related to metabolic status and organ function. Most biomarkers showed distinct values in centenarians, except for alanine aminotransferase and albumin, which are related to liver function.
As the global population’s life expectancy improves, the number of centenarians is expected to rise significantly. In 2015, there were almost 500,000 centenarians worldwide, and this number is projected to reach 3.7 million by 2050. To better understand the characteristics of centenarians, the researchers focused on blood biomarkers and their potential implications for metabolic function and overall health.
The findings revealed that centenarians had lower levels of glucose, creatinine, and uric acid compared to non-centenarians. These biomarkers are associated with renal function, muscle mass, and the risk of kidney stones, kidney disease, and gout. However, extremely low levels of uric acid may pose neurological risks. Alanine aminotransferase and albumin, which are related to liver function, did not show significant differences between centenarians and non-centenarians.
While the study’s findings provide valuable insights into the biomarker profiles of centenarians, it is important to consider other factors that can influence biomarker levels, such as inflammation and chronic illness. Factors like lifestyle, diet, and genetics also play a role in determining the likelihood of reaching 100 years old and beyond. Further research is needed to fully understand the complex interplay of these factors and their impact on exceptional longevity.